What does personalized medicine really mean?
If you have cancer, “this is a match”, it is when your tumor’s genetic makeup is susceptible to targeted treatment that is vulnerable to major news.
A size is not suitable for all personalized medicine, also known as the purpose of precision medicine. Even in a single type of cancer, the type of tumor varies from patient to patient. Treatment should also be individualized, which makes sense.
Personalised medicine also has an impact on non-cancer cases. In addition to being more effective, targeted methods can also help patients get rid of the side effects of standard treatment. However, it is important to recognize that targeted drugs also have side effects.
For Janice King Poulsen, 71, in Sandy, Utah, the key treatment game involves a mutation in the ALK gene. The lifelong non-smoker Poulsen was diagnosed with IIIA lung cancer in May 2007. Lung cancer spread to her brain. Family radon exposure, then turned out, is likely to be the culprit.
Paulsen had to retire, work as a travel agency and manage the synchronized skating program. Cancer is a priority. She underwent a series of difficult standard treatments: radiation, chemotherapy, brain surgery and gamma knife therapy, or stereotactic radiation, because of the development of new brain tumors.
Eventually, Mr. Paulson contacted the huntsman cancer institute at the university of Utah. She learned that she might benefit from a targeted drug called Zykadia, or ceritinib, to treat non-small cell lung cancer. Her tumor genetic tests revealed ALK mutations, which she said were correct.
Polson has been in precise treatment for three years. She takes three capsules a day, with little nausea and diarrhea. She said she felt fine. Her cancer seems to be under control.
Insurance helps pay for expensive medication, which costs about $13,000 a month, and paulsen’s family pays about $460 a month. “Cancer is not cheap,” she said. In contrast, paulsen, who now advocates strengthening the family’s radon testing policy, said: “if you use radon mitigation systems, that’s about $1,500.
For precision medicine for cancer treatment, it requires two key parts. Huntsman Cancer Institute at the university of Utah (Huntsman Cancer Institute), chief executive and director of the Mary baker (Mary Beckerle) said: “you must understand both genetic changes, and want to have a match with these genetic changes of targeted therapy, and follow them.
Cancer is not a single disease, Beckerle explains, but hundreds of different diseases. Finding a treatment that matches a tumor – as in the paulsen case – is far from guaranteed.
“One of the interesting challenges is that only about 5 percent of lung cancer patients have ALK mutations in their tumors,” said Beckerle. “So, now we have a very promising treatment, we have to find patients can benefit from it, therefore, we in 100 cases of patients with tumor genetic tests, so that the average to find five beneficial patients from this treatment. ”
The following are some medical conditions that can be used to match the genetic type:
Leukaemia: among the first targeted therapies developed, grecon inhibited specific proteins from the Philadelphia chromosome abnormality in certain types of leukemia. The food and drug administration approved gleevec in 2001.
Cystic fibrosis: two fda-approved drugs, Kalydeco and Orkambi, play a role in the effects of defective proteins produced by cystic fibrosis genes. These drugs only apply to a subset of patients with CF. If matched, the lung function of targeted therapy patients improved significantly.
Breast cancer: drug herceptin may be effective for breast cancer patients with a high level of HER2 protein. But for a small group of women taking the intravenous drug, heart failure has been a particular side effect. Herceptin women should monitor heart function closely.
Colon cancer: with advanced colorectal cancer, a targeted drug called monoclonal antibody therapy is used to prevent the growth and spread of tumors by using drugs such as avastin or cetuximab. Other targeted drugs use different mechanisms to fight tumors.
The national cancer institute provides a comprehensive range of targeted cancer therapies that have so far been approved by the food and drug administration.
Psychotropic drugs is more than just genetics, all our research project director Eric Dishman says, this is an ambitious effort, from the national institutes of health to collect more than 100 U.S. residents health and genomic data. True personalized medicine includes bringing together rich personal health data, including but not limited to your genome sequence.
The “we all” program aims to accelerate research and improve health. The goal is to provide precise drugs, and to seek medical breakthroughs by thinking about individual differences in lifestyle, environment and biology.
According to the national institutes of health website, the wide range of “we all” will make it possible to study common and rare diseases. One focus is on pharmacogenomics – why individuals react differently to commonly used drugs.
Volunteers can benefit from collecting data and information about their personal health. Although enrollment is limited during the testing phase of the project, a full public release is expected this spring.
Dishman is enthusiastic about the need for personalized medicine, no wonder – he was an early beneficiary. Twenty years after the diagnosis of renal cancer at the age of 19, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and so on, about five years ago, he found himself in a kidney failure, is about to start dialysis, and almost no hope of survival.
Dishman didn’t know at the time that his medical team had made an unprecedented four-month effort to collect every bit of information from the 23 years of disease treatment. They also analyzed his genetic information. What they found was surprising: his kidney cancer may have the best response to chemotherapy, which is commonly used in pancreatic cancer.
The experiment worked to ease Dishman’s cancer and allow him to receive a kidney transplant from a colleague of Intel, who was working as a vice President of health and life sciences.
Although exciting, precise treatment still has a long way to go. Although they are very hopeful, Beckerle said, “we also know that tumors can escape our best targeted therapies.” In some cases, the patient’s cancer may return and become resistant to previous drugs. For example, patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with gleevec may experience relapses and their diseases are no longer susceptible to drugs, she said.
The cost and access to these treatments are also problematic, especially for those without a dedicated cancer center. If you or your family members are diagnosed with cancer, Beckerle advises, “don’t hesitate to ask your oncologist if there is any targeted treatment for your specific type of cancer.” If not, she added, the emerging therapies that could emerge from clinical trials would be asked.